Sick chicken?

“How did you know your chicken was sick, so I’ll know what to look for in my own chickens?”

That’s what the Tractor Supply employee asked me as she attempted to help me with medicine dosages.

I wasn’t raised with chickens, so I dreaded the potential of a sick chick! However, it really wasn’t as scary as I imagined. Knowledge truly is power. Let me explain…

One day, our girl was completely FINE… The next day, she was VERY lethargic, struggling to keep both eyes open, She was a pitiable sight. She was also slow and fluid in her motions — somethin’ aint right if your chickens aren’t actin’ spastic or jerky in their movements! If she was left untreated, I felt as though we would have lost her within 24-48 hours, easily.

I started by separating her from the flock. I prepared a towel-lined dog kennel in our laundry room with food (soaked grain) and water (mixed with electrolytes). She wasn’t interested, so… I mixed raw egg yolk with electrolytes, probiotics, and nutri drench to feed her with a needleless syringe (I had to play with dripping a drop or two on her beak until she was strong enough to peck at it). That interested her enough to put my mind at ease.  You can even add green tea, as seen here:

After observing her for a couple of hours, I noticed she was passing a lot of blood in her stool. Oh my! While blood is not a final determining factor (a vet can test to confirm – we didn’t), my best guess was that she had Coccidiosis. It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of parasites. The parasites multiply rapidly by damaging the intestinal lining, preventing chickens from absorbing nutrients in their food.

I wondered HOW in the world she came in contact with this, as I had tossed several handfuls of our grass (with attached roots/soil) from our property in their puppy tent as little chicks to expose them young. BUT I didn’t account for the possibility of other birds transferring foreign matter into our yard, potentially exposing the flock to unfamiliar-to-them things. Those microscopic cooties are everywhere! For all we knew, we could have walked them in the chicken run wearing our rubber boots!

I tend to take the holistic approach, so the last thing I WANTED to do was medicate, but I knew she needed more than garlic and ACV to bounce back! We would need to try a recommended medication called Corid, to give her a fighting chance. I found the most help for proper dosing on the BackYard Chickens site – comments from people who’ve been there, done that. –>>  BackYard Chickens – Learn How to Raise Chickens.

Liquid dose:
2 teaspoons per gallon for five days, then 1/2 teaspoon for 7-14 days.

Powder dose:
1.5 teaspoons per gallon for five days, then 1/3 teaspoon for 7-14 days.

The preventative dose (.006%) for Corid Powder is 1/3 teaspoon.
The preventative dose (.006%) for Corid liquid is 1/2 teaspoon.

The moderate outbreak dose (.012%) for Corid Powder is 3/4 teaspoon.
The moderate outbreak dose (.012%) for Corid liquid is 1 teaspoon.

The severe outbreak dose (.024%) for Corid Powder is 1.5 teaspoons
The severe outbreak dose (.024%) for Corid liquid is 2 teaspoon.

I used the severe outbreak (powder) dose, offered as the only source of drinking water. I also added this water to the egg yolk mixture (mentioned above) and soaked her feed in this medicated water, as well. Her favorite treat was Brewers nutritional yeast, so I sprinkled that on top of: scrambled eggs, the yolk mixture in a small bowl, or even her feed.

For one week, we treated the entire flock (just in case) and then simply kept a close eye on all of them for several weeks, looking for the slightest symptom… which included scanning their droppings for any blood.  Coccidiosis is highly contagious. Luckily, no other chickens developed symptoms. But now I’m always on the lookout, seeing just how quickly those symptoms developed!

You might be interested in re-treating, as is generally recommended. We didn’t.


As for our Daisy girl, we treated her indoors until she was acting like her old spunky self,  no longer passing blood. I sat with her a couple of times each day so that I could better assess her. She was good to go, back with the flock in  4 days, as if nothing had ever happened!

Note: While our girls hadn’t started producing eggs, according to the FDA, amprolium (corid) is approved for use in laying hens, so (according to them) it’s safe to eat their eggs.

I don’t have all of this homestead gig figured out – not even close, but now I know I can do this one thing. Hope you find this helpful!

Blessings! xoxo

Christians & Halloween: Is participation really just a matter of conscience?

Made into a post by request for sharing. I simply encourage you to take it to Yah in prayer and read what He has to say about it.

This was in response to an Instagram post which has received thousands of “likes” on the topic of Halloween (because I’ve shared her content before). Comments were turned off before her post came across my feed —  Defending a Christian’s participation,  I imagine she received some pushback. However, I’m not here to attack her. If you missed her original post, it’s okay.

In full disclosure, our family participated in “Fall festival, family-friendly alternatives” while our girls were young. File that under “I’d like a do-over, please.”

Before reading, please know that this is simply part of my personal journey/research and I pray it prompts you to further research as well. Tone & intent can get lost in text, but this truly comes from a place of love.

Halloween is a high holy day for Satanists, witches, and other occult members. To it’s very origin, Halloween is evil. Satan has made it very easy to ignore those things. You can glorify God by NOT celebrating Halloween.  -ex witch

Are we conforming the Word to our lives OR… our lives to the Word? For discernment’s sake, we must look at this without emotions attached to years of tradition.

While the Bible doesn’t specifically mention “Halloween” –> it has a lot to say about Yah and how He regards evil, paganism, and idols.

  • You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons too; you cannot have a part in both the Lord’s table and the table of demons.   1 Corinthians 10:21
    Abstain from all appearance of evil.  1 Thessalonians 5:22
    Don’t participate in the fruitless works of darkness, but instead expose them.  Ephesians 5:11
    Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who turn darkness to light and light to darkness, who replace bitter with sweet and sweet with bitter.  Isaiah 5:20

The worldLook, Christians celebrate Halloween, too.

ChristiansBut what we do is different.

The WORDcome out from among them and be separate” – 2 Cor. 6:17

ChristiansOur version is innocent.

The WORDSatan appears as an angel of light.

How will the world know we are set apart?
While Yeshua walked with sinners, He didn’t partake in their actions. He does not call us to lose our holiness. We will never influence the world by trying to imitate it. If we are the light of the world, a lamp on a stand, a city on a hill, we are not “down the hill” with the world.


There seems to be some confusion about Paul…

How is Paul made “all things to all men” (1 Corinthians 9:22)?

He is saying that although he is “in-lawed” (ennomos) to Christ, he can preach the Gospel in a way that the lawless Gentiles can understand. Paul did not say, I become as the world to win the world. To imply that Paul was willing to flirt with sin in order to reach the sinful, is a total misrepresentation of what this passage means.

Is everything permissible?

The term “Christian Liberty” is oftentimes abused and used in “buffet style” Christianity. Paul answers questions about consuming meat sacrificed to idols – not with a new teaching on idolatry but by urging the Corinthians to consider how their actions will cause others to stumble.

I recommend reading chapters 8-10 together for context

But if someone says to you, “This is food from a sacrifice,” do not eat it, out of consideration for the one who told you, and for the sake of conscience. 1 Cor. 10:28.

I have not come across one former Satanist who recommends Christian participation in Halloween. It begs the question… Why??  History is important…

Costumes: to protect yourself from spirits of the dead
Trick or treat“: offering for the spirits (Did you know that witches curse the halloween candy?)
Jack-o’-lantern: An icon dedicated to human sacrifice — candles were made from the fat of sacrificed children, set in a gourd, as a “blessing”. (human sacrifice is STILL happening today)
Decor: Skeletons, gore, etc. all who hate me love death – Proverbs 8:36
Bobbing for applesNov 1st, was a day to honor the goddess Pomona, the goddess of fruit, trees and fertility. Her symbol? The apple.

“Origins don’t matter…”
What would happen if we walked into the Old Testament temple with that ideology?

If Yahweh didn’t mean what He said about incorporating pagan customs and witchcraft into His worship, it doesn’t make any difference. But if He did, it makes ALL the difference.

“The children are just having fun.”
Our enemy has a history of going after children, watering down the severity of sin, making them easier to manipulate (to further compromise the next generation).

“It’s a chance to meet my community.”
If this is a concern, what are we doing other days throughout the year to connect with community? Are we creating a “stumbling block” for others, giving our approval by appearance, instead of remaining “set apart” on this particular day?

“But our church has a Fall Festival.”
Do we celebrate any other season like we do fall? Have we ever stopped to consider why?

“It’s a celebration of that which the devil loves and God hates.”
-ex mystic witch – 16 yrs (teacher, lead instructor, warlock) “Brother Matthew” @2cor2_1

You shall utterly destroy all the places where the nations which you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains and on the hills and under every green tree. And you shall destroy their altars, break their sacred pillars, and burn their wooden images with fire; you shall cut down the carved images of their gods and destroy their names from that place. You shall not worship the Lord your God with such things. Deut. 12:2-4

When you come into the land which the Lord your God is giving you, you shall not learn to follow the abominations of those nations. There shall not be found among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, or one who practices witchcraft, or a soothsayer, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord your God drives them out from before you. You shall be blameless before the Lord your God. For these nations which you will dispossess listened to soothsayers and diviners; but as for you, the Lord your God has not appointed such for you. Deut. 18:9-15

Would He allow the tiniest shrine of Baphomet in our house or does He leave it up to us as a matter of conscience?

Put on the full armor of God so that you can stand against the schemes of the devil. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers of this darkness, against evil, spiritual forces in the heavens. For this reason take up the full armor of God, so that you may be able to resist in the evil day, and having prepared everything, to take your stand. Ephesians 6:10-13

Further study: Jeremiah 27:9, Ephesians 5: 15-16, John 3:19-20, Deuteronomy 12:29-31, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20, 1 John‬ ‭2:6‬, Proverbs 6:27, Romans 13:12, Titus 1:15

“Then you should throw out Christmas and Easter as well.”

Using other “holidays” to defend Halloween is a weak argument.

With years of family traditions, untangling the web of deceit around mainstream holidays can be a painful process. Sigh… But I’m pretty sure Yah doesn’t appreciate much of what has crept into the lives of believers.

I’m learning that Christmas simply has evil roots with shinier lights. Those who scream “put Christ back in Christmas” haven’t understood that He was never in it to begin with… But there are other appointed times Yah does ask us to meet with Him (See Exodus 20 for Sabbath and Leviticus 23 for feasts). The question is, which ones are we elevating?

Ultimately, it doesn’t matter what it means to me, it matters what it means to God.


At least before choosing to participate next year, consider the words of Alyn & A.J. in this video (linked).

Always learning…

Blessings, friends.

p.s. Maybe littles could learn more about Reformation Day regarding the 31st. xoxo

honor their memory by speaking TRUTH

If truly seen as casualties for the greater good in the medical community, there would be days set aside to honor their sacrifice.

Instead, we simply honor their memories by speaking truth.

Covid-19 Vaccine Reactions (covidvaccinereactions.com)

Simone Scott: 19-year-old Northwestern University freshman develops myocarditis, receives heart transplant, dead six weeks after second Moderna mRNA injection – The COVID Blog

If you, or someone you know, is injured, please report it.

**I’m still learning

**I’m still learning. ⠀

I feel as though this disclaimer should be written across my forehead. If you judged me based on where I was 20 years ago, 10 years ago, I year ago, or even 1 day ago, you might find that I’ve changed. But isn’t that what we’re supposed to do? Change. ⠀

This is why, though exhausting at times, I speak grace (as much as I can muster) to those unaware of the bigger picture at play. We are all on quite the adventurous learning journey, right? Some of us learned the hard way, through pain. And a few of us learned by watching others fall. ⠀

But grace. Grace is so needed in this hour. The incessant chanting back and forth energizes our real enemy. He laughs, while we direct negative energy towards people, forgetting that we are in a war against spiritual forces of evil (Ephesians 6). ⠀

So, today… I choose grace on this journey. Because I’m still learning, too. And reminding myself that this war is ironically not of flesh and blood (Ephesians 6:12). ⠀

Life isn’t easy. I simply hope to encourage someone as they wake… not shame them in all of the things they should have already known. We all started somewhere. My heart truly goes out to those who blindly trusted and, without TRUE informed consent, already took the “juice which shall remain nameless for purposes of not getting deleted again.”⠀

There is grace.

what’s in your water?



“Clean” ⠀
“Safe”⠀

That’s cute. 

Water bottle companies are actually bottle companies… Change my mind. 

(video)

What is REALLY “added” to the water? 

Check EWG for a rough estimate of contaminates found in your local water supply. 

In our home, we have a well and utilize @berkey_filters. Yes, I‘ve seen the reasons people choose not to use them as well. For our daughter’s dorm room, we bought a @clearly_filtered pitcher. ⠀

I don’t have the perfect answer for water filters. They are all over the map, as far as budgets go, but… I can only imagine, just about any filter is better than NO filter, when it comes to city tap water. 🙏🏻⠀

And should said city decide to cut off running water, do you have an alternate source? ⠀
p.s. not sponsored. 

where did you order your chickens?

If you know me, you know that I research, research, research before doing… just about anything anymore.

I have a soft spot for animals. Sigh. So, you can imagine I hit the books and internet when looking to order chicks! What?! I know… Since moving onto a few acres, I look at the mirror and ask, “who is this woman?” daily.

After reading over the many (many) hatcheries (local would have been best, however we were new to the area and had specific birds in mind). Here’s some of the information that helped to make our decision…

Are hatcheries humane?
https://www.theselfsufficienthomeacre.com/2013/09/are-hatcheries-humane.html (I did not/could not watch the video.)

We chose to order our chicks from…  https://thechickhatchery.com/

Chicks are hatched from NPIP Certified Flocks and carry minimum classifications of Avian Influenza Clean as well as Pullorum Typhoid Clean.  Marek’s Vaccination is available for all Chicken Breeds for a small fee.  We operate NO KILL Facilities!   All Poultry are raised HumanelyUnsold Male chicks are shipped to large Amish Family Farms.

I sleep better at night knowing my chicks came from a facility that does NOT participate in grinding, gassing, etc… baby chicks. Nor do they automatically vaccinate – you have to opt-IN, instead of opting OUT.

In our first order, we requested 15 chicks: Black Australorp, Buff Orpington, Dominique, Easter Egger, and Salmon Faverolle.  They sent us 18 very healthy chicks. All doing wonderfully!

I have found CHICKENLANDIA to be an amazing resource for chicken care.

We’re using a wonderful chick starter from Scratch & Peck feeds through Azure (have you signed up yet??).  I highly recommend fermenting the feed. (here’s why and how,  here and here) AND it has helped us avoid dealing with “pasty butt“.

p.s. a few natural remedies for chickens, click here.

Tell-a-Vision

How would you know if you were being deceived? Controlled even?
I’m not telling you that your government is controlling you, but I’m not NOT telling you that they are working to gain control. Clear as mud?
When you ask, how can people NOT see the bigger picture by now…
1 Timothy 4 —> Now the Spirit expressly states that in later times some will abandon the faith to follow deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons, influenced by the hypocrisy of liars, whose consciences are seared with a hot iron.
This is a spiritual battle and if you are not plugged into God, there is an even bigger hill to climb. I’m not simply talking about church attendees or online observers, but those in relationship with Him.
But the first step is to get our loved ones away from the See-In-In. Aka, Tell-a-Vision.
Again, I continue to speak out for the fence riders, those with ears to hear…


US 6506148 B2 – Nervous System Manipulation By Electromagnetic Fields From Monitors –  The Lens – Free & Open Patent and Scholarly Search

US6506148B2 – Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors – Google Patents 

“Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set.”

“Certain monitors can emit electromagnetic field pulses that excite a sensory resonance in a nearby subject, through image pulses that are so weak as to be subliminal. This is unfortunate since it opens a way for mischievous application of the invention, whereby people are exposed unknowingly to manipulation of their nervous systems for someone else’s purposes. Such application would be unethical and is of course not advocated. It is mentioned here in order to alert the public to the possibility of covert abuse that may occur while being online, or while watching TV, a video, or a DVD.”

US6238333B1 – Remote magnetic manipulation of nervous systems – Google Patents

“…together with the large magnetic moments that can be obtained with a permanent bar magnet, makes it possible to effectively manipulate the nervous system of a subject over a distance of several hundred meters, using a small portable battery-powered device. The method can be used in law enforcement for standoff situations.”

—> p.s. Peep those other cited patents. eek!

mask science {part 3}

Cloth masks:

26 — S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

Original article – cloth masks were found to have low efficiency for blocking particles of 0.3 microns and smaller. Aerosol penetration through the various cloth masks examined in the is study were between 74 and 90%. Likewise, the filtration efficiency of fabric materials was 3% to 33%.

 

27 — C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

Randomised controlled trial – healthcare workers wearing cloth masks were found to have 13 times the risk of influenza-like illness than those wearing medical masks.

 

28 — W Kellogg. An experimental study of the efficacy of gauze face masks. Am J Pub Health. 1920. 34-42.

https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.10.1.34

Original article – 1920 – analysis of cloth mask use during the 1918 pandemic examines the failure of masks to impede or stop flu transmission at that time. Concluded that the number of layers of fabric required to prevent pathogen penetration would have required a suffocating number of layers, and could not be used for that reason, as well as the problem of leakage vents around the edges of cloth masks.

 

29 — Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Beezhold DH, et al. A comparison of performance metrics for cloth face masks as source control devices for simulated cough and exhalation aerosols. Preprint. medRxiv. 2021;2021.02.16.21251850. Published 2021 Feb 19. doi:10.1101/2021.02.16.21251850

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899465/

 

 

Masks against Covid-19:

29 — M Klompas, C Morris, et al. Universal masking in hospitals in the Covid-19 era. N Eng J Med. 2020; 382 e63.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006372

Editorial New England Journal of Medicine – “we know that wearing a mask outside health care facilities offers little, if any, protection from infection. Public health authorities define a significant exposure to Covid-19 as face-to-face contact within 6 feet with a patient with symptomatic Covid-19 that is sustained for at least a few minutes (and some say more than 10 minutes or even 20 minutes). The chance of catching Covid-19 from a passing interaction in a public space therefore is minimal. In many cases, the desire for widespread masking is a reflexive reaction to anxiety over the pandemic.”

 

SAFETY OF MASKS

During walking or other exercise

30 — E Person, C Lemercier et al. Effect of a surgical mask on six minute walking distance. Rev Mal Respir. 2018 Mar; 35(3):264-268.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29395560/

Randomised controlled trial – surgical mask wearers had significantly increased dyspnea after a 6 minute walk than non-mask wearers.

 

31 — B Chandrasekaran, S Fernandes. Exercise with facemask; are we handling a devil’s sword – a physiological hypothesis. Med Hypothese. 2020 Jun 22. 144:110002.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32590322/

Physiological Hypothesis – concern about possible burden of facemasks during physical activity on pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems, due to oxygen reduction and air trapping reducing substantial carbon dioxide exchange. As a result of hypercapnia, there may be a cardiac overload, renal overload and a shift to metabolic acidosis.

 

Risks of N95 respirators:

32 — P Shuang Ye Tong, A Sugam Kale, et al. Respiratory consequences of N95-type mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers – A controlled clinical study. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2015 Nov 16; 4:48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26579222/

Controlled clinical trial – Pregnant healthcare workers were found to have a loss in volume of oxygen consumption by 13.8% compared to controls when wearing N95 respirators. 17.7% less carbon dioxide was inhaled.

 

33 — T Kao, K Huang, et al. The physiological impact of wearing an N95 mask during hemodialysis as a precaution against SARS in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004 Aug; 103(8):624-628.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15340662/

Original article – patients with end stage renal disease were studied during use of N95 respirators. Their partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly compared to controls and increased respiratory adverse effects. 19% of the patients developed various degrees of hypoxemia while wearing the masks.

 

34 — F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods. 2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

Original article – healthcare workers’ N95 respirators were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbor influenza virus.

 

35 — A Rule, O Apau, et al. Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31; 13(8): e0203223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30169507/

Original article – 25% of healthcare workers’ facepiece respirators were found to contain influenza in an emergency department during the 2015 flu season.

 

Risk of surgical masks:

36 — F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods. 2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

Original article – healthcare workers’ surgical masks were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbour for influenza virus.

 

37 — A Chughtai, S Stelzer-Braid, et al. Contamination by respiratory viruses on our surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 3; 19(1): 491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31159777/

Original clinical study – various respiratory pathogens were found on the outer surface of used medical masks, which could result in self-contamination. The risk was found to be higher with the longer duration of mask use.

 

38 — L Zhiqing, C Yongyun, et al. J Orthop Translat. 2018 Jun 27; 14:57-62.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30035033/

Original article – surgical masks were found to be a repository of bacterial contamination. The source of the bacterial was determined to be the body surface of the surgeons, rather than the operating room environment. Given that surgeons are gowned from head to food for surgery, this finding should be especially concerning for the general public who wear masks. Without the protective outfits of surgeons, the general public have even more exposed body surface to serve as a source for bacteria to collect on their masks.

 

Risks of cloth masks:

39 — C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577

Randomized controlled trial – healthcare workers wearing cloth masks had significantly higher rates of influenza-like illness after four weeks of continuous on-the-job use, when compared to controls (medical masks)

 

40 — A Beder, U Buyukkocak, et al. Preliminary report on surgical mask induced deoxygenation during major surgery. Neurocirugia. 2008; 19: 121-126.

http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/neuro/v19n2/3.pdf

Longitudinal and observational study – increased rate of infection in mask-wearers may be due to a weakening of immune function during mask use. Surgeons were found to have lower oxygen saturation after surgeries even as short as 30 minutes.

 

41 — D Lukashev, B Klebanov, et al. Cutting edge: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and its activation[1]inducible short isoform negatively regulate functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8) 4962-4965.

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/8/4962

Animal study – low oxygen induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1).

 

42 — A Sant, A McMichael. Revealing the role of CD4+ T-cells in viral immunity. J Exper Med. 2012 Jun 30; 209(8):1391-1395.

https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/3420330

Review – low oxygen and induction of HIF-1 down regulates CD4+ T-cells. CD4+ T-cells are necessary for viral immunity.

 

Maskne:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijd.15425
https://www.brighteon.com/34ca1629-556b-4d8b-909e-efa43600e277

A few more studies (some repeats) via Dr. Tenpenny:
https://vaxxter.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Masks-Final.pdf

 

mask science {part 1}
mask science {part 2}

mask science {part 2}

N95 masks:

12 — N95 masks explained. https://www.honeywell.com/us/en/news/2020/03/n95-masks-explained Honeywell manufactures N95 respirators. They are made with 0.3 micron filter. They are named N95 because 95% of particles having a diameter of 0.3 microns are filtered by the mask forward to the wearer by use of an electrostatic mechanism. Coronaviruses are approximately 0.125 microns in diameter. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32342926/

 

13 — V Offeddu, C Yung, et al. Effectiveness of masks and respirators against infections in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Inf Dis. 65(11), 2017 Dec 1; 1934-1942.

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/65/11/1934/4068747

Meta-analysis – found that N95 respirators did not provide superior protection to facemasks against viral infections or influenza-like infections.

 

14 — C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aR-su9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

Randomised clinical trial – this study did find superior protection by N95 respirators when they were properly fitted (fit-tested) compared to surgical masksLegal paperwork:

https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/da49e84a-a861-4967-b23a-368fb303c14c/downloads/Mask%20Free%20Documents%20.pdf?ver=1620666816153

 

15 — M Walker. Study casts doubt on N95 masks for the public. MedPage Today. 2020 May 20.

https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/publichealth/86601

Original study found that 624 our to 714 people wearing N95 masks left visible gaps when putting on their own masks.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2766070

 

 

Surgical masks:

16 — C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aRsu9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

Randomized clinical trial – study found that surgical masks offered no protection at all against influenza.

 

17 — N Shimasaki, A Okaue, et al. Comparison of the filter efficiency of medical nonwoven fabrics against three different microbe aerosols. Biocontrol Sci. 2018; 23(2). 61-69.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bio/23/2/23_61/_pdf/-char/en

Original article – surgical masks had about 85% penetration ratio of aerosolized inactivated influenza particles and about 90% of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial although the S. aureus particles were about 6x the diameter of influenza particles.

 

18 — T Tunevall. Postoperative wound infections and surgical face masks: A controlled study. World J Surg. 1991 May; 15: 383-387.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01658736

Original article – use of masks in surgery were found to slightly INCREASE incidence of infection over not masking in a study of 3088 surgeries. The surgeons’ masks were found to give no protective effect to the patients.

 

19 — N Orr. Is a mask necessary in the operating theatre? Ann Royal Coll Surg Eng 1981: 63: 390-392.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493952/pdf/annrcse01509-0009.pdf

Original article – no difference in wound infection rates with and without surgical masks.

 

20 — N Mitchell, S Hunt. Surgical face masks in modern operating rooms – a costly and unnecessary ritual? J Hosp Infection. 18(3); 1991 Jul 1. 239-242.

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(91)90148-2/pdf

Original article – no difference in wound infection rates with and without surgical masks.

 

21 — C DaZhou, P Sivathondan, et al. Unmasking the surgeons: the evidence base behind the use of facemasks in surgery. JR Soc Med. 2015 Jun; 108(6): 223-228.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480558/

Systematic review – “there is a lack of substantial evidence to support claims that facemasks protect either the patient or surgeon from infectious contamination.”

 

22 — L Brosseau, M Sietsema. Commentary: Masks for all for Covid-19 not based on sound data. U Minn Ctr Inf Dis Res Pol. 2020 Apr 1.

https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/04/commentary-masks-all-covid-19-not-based

Medical masks have a wide range of filtration efficiency, with most showing a 30% to 50% efficiency.

 

23 — N Leung, D Chu, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks Nature Research. 2020 Mar 7. 26,676-680 (2020).

https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-16836/v1

Original article – both experimental and control groups, masked and unmasked respectively, were found to “not shed detectable virus in respiratory droplets or aerosols.” The study “did not confirm the infectivity of coronavirus” as found in exhaled breath.

 

24 — S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

Original article – study of aerosol penetration showed that two of the five surgical masks studied had 51% to 89% penetration of polydisperse aerosols.

 

25 — S Bae, M Kim, et al. Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS-CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 patients. Ann Int Med. 2020 Apr 6.

https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-1342

Original article – observed subjects while coughing, “neither surgical nor cotton masks effectively filtered SARS-CoV-2 during coughs by infected patients.” More viral particles were found on the outside than on the inside of masks tested.

 

mask science {part 1}
mask science {part 3)